caída de tenochtitlan

They had no new troops, supplies, food, nor water. [1][page needed], During Cortés's absence, Pedro de Alvarado was left in command in Tenochtitlan with 80 soldiers. Another strong motivation to join forces with the Spanish was that Tlaxcala was encircled by Aztec tributaries. The northern valley was less populous, travel was difficult, and it was still the agricultural season, so the attacks on Cortés's forces were not very heavy. Con la destrucción de Tenochtitlan y la caída del imperio azteca, los españoles reconstruyeron la antigua ciudad y establecieron el centro del imperio español, Nueva España. He had never fought an Aztec army before and did not expect such resolve and martial skill as he encountered – although all his previous foes warned that the Mexicans were the greatest warriors they had ever seen and could not be withstood within their city. Another reason for his sudden capture was news that Moctezuma received from one of his messengers. [26][page needed], It was at this event where firsthand accounts were recorded in the Florentine Codex concerning the adverse effects of the smallpox epidemic of the Aztecs, which stated, "many died from this plague, and many others died of hunger. Una poderosa narrativa visual y una profunda investigación iconográfica se conjugan para recrear en todo su esplendor la gloria del imperio mexica y los horrores de la guerra que llevó a su perdición. The Spanish suffered some losses, but were victorious over the Aztecs, who then retreated and were pursued by cavalry. La principal causa de la conquista de Tenochtitlán fue el deseo de los españoles de conquistar nuevos territorios y obtener más recursos económicos. Tony Issa, Diego Cano y JP Duran P5 Ocurre la matanza mayor en el Templo Mayor de la ciudad de México-Tenochtitlán. [clarification needed] However, he did not carry out either of these actions even though high-ranking military leaders such as his brother Cuitlahuac and nephew Cacamatzin urged him to do so. Ahuaxpitzactzin (later baptized as Don Carlos), the brother of the Texcoco lord Don Fernando, remained in Cortés' camp with forty relatives and friends. Evidence suggests that the two were in the midst of negotiations at the time, and Narváez was not expecting an attack. As many as 40,000 Aztecs bodies were floating in the canals or awaiting burial after the siege. [10] Messages between Cortés and Moctezuma, however, frequently allude to the legend, which was widely known across the Aztec dominions to both Aztecs and their subjects, and strongly influenced them, as Bernal Díaz del Castillo repeatedly mentions. [33] Due to the wholesale slaughter after the campaign and the destruction of Aztec culture some sources such as Israel Charney,[34] John C. Cox,[35] and Norman Naimark[33] have likened the siege to a genocide. Thus, prohibiting human sacrifice during this festival was an untenable proposition for the Aztecs. This Moctezuma at all costs wanted to avoid, vacillating and deferring the rupture until this policy claimed his life. Three stones hit him, one of them on the head, so cerebral hematoma is possible. 1. Levy, Buddy, Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stands of the Aztecs, (New York: Bantam Books, 2008), 170–71. [29]:347–49, Returning to Texcoco, which had been guarded by his Captain Gonzalo de Sandoval, Cortés was joined by many more men from Castile. La captura de Cuauhtémoc y caída de Tenochtitlan «...y prendiéronle a él y a aquel Guatimucín y a aquel señor de Tacuba, y a otros principales que con él estaban; y luego, el dicho capitán Garci Holguín me trajo allí a la azotea donde estaba, que era junto al lago, al señor de … Cuauhtemoc then enlisted his allies in Matlazingo, Malinalco, and Tulapa, in attacking the Spaniards from the rear. [29]:377 Alvarado escaped from the ambush, but five of his men were captured and taken off to the Great Temple to be sacrificed. [12], Cortés continued on his march towards Tenochtitlan. In spite of determined opposition, the Spanish push got them to the top of the temple's 114 steps, but at a great loss. He was supplied with darts sacred to Huitzilopochtli, which came with wooden tips and flint tops. Overrating his forces. "[29]:308, 352, Cortés had 84 horsemen, 194 arbalesters and arquebusiers, plus 650 Spanish foot soldiers. [23][page needed], When Cortés finally reached Tlaxcala five days after fleeing Tenochtitlan, he had lost over 860 Spanish soldiers, over a thousand Tlaxcalans, as well as Spanish women who had accompanied Narváez's troops. The result either preempted or triggered the Aztec revolt, which was, however, inevitable from the moment of Moctezuma's capture and was accelerated by the split of the Spanish forces. [1] Other sources estimate that around 860 Spanish soldiers and 20,000 Tlaxcalan warriors were killed during all the battles in this region from 1519–1521. The direct loss of nearly a hundred men dead and the fierce spirit of the Aztecs who refused to be cowed by his ascent of the temple convinced Cortés that a night escape was now his only option for survival. Other sources estimate that nearly half of the Spanish and almost all of the natives were killed or wounded. [29]:356 Cortés' forces took up these positions on May 22. He wanted all of their warriors ready the next day when he put thirteen sloops into the lake (misleadingly called "launches" in some translations). However, Cortés had little knowledge of the ruling system of the Aztecs; Moctezuma was not all-powerful as Cortés imagined. [1][page needed], Though the largest group of indigenous allies were Tlaxcalans, the Huexotzinco, Atlixco, Tliliuhqui-Tepecs, Tetzcocans, Chalca, Alcohua, and Tepanecs were all important allies as well, and had all been previously subjugated by the Aztecs. The Spanish horses were also ineffective on the causeways. One reason was that Tenochtitlan was certainly in a state of disorder: the smallpox disease ravaged the population, killing still more important leaders and nobles, and a new king, Cuauhtémoc, son of King Ahuitzotl, was placed on the throne in February 1521. "The World's Greatest Explorers: Hernando Cortés." Cortés decided to make an opening in the causeway so that his brigantines could help defend his forces from both sides. It was reported to Moctezuma that at least eight hundred more Spaniards in thirteen great ships had arrived on the coast. Joseph, Gilbert M. and Henderson, Timothy J. Duke University Press, 2002. [17], By the day of the festival, the Aztecs had gathered on the Patio of Dances. They returned with two of the Matlazingo chieftains as prisoners. [21] The Spanish asserted that Moctezuma was stoned to death by his own people as he attempted to speak with them. [1] Cortés entered the palace unscathed, as the hostilities had not started yet, although the Aztecs had probably planned to ambush him. They captured two Spanish launches, killing Captains Juan de la Portilla and Pedro Barba. They feared a "snowball effect": if one tributary left, others might follow. With his main headquarters in Texcoco, he could stop his forces from being spread too thin around the lake, and there he could contact them where they needed. de Sahagun, Bernardino. La dominacióncomenzó en 1519, cuando Hernán Cortés, habiendo salido de la isla de Cuba, llegó a las costas mexicanas y conquistó sus territorios en nombre de la Corona española. In addition, Cortés replaced kings with those who he knew would be loyal to him. The morning after, the Aztecs returned to recover the spoils from the canals. Caída de Tenochtitlan (1521). The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico, Ángel María Garibay K. (Nahuatl-Spanish trans. 2006 The Broken Spears: the Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico. [1959] (1992). Cuitláhuac had been elected as the emperor immediately following Moctezuma's death. Each sloop had rigging, sails, oars, and spare oars. Cortés' and Sandoval's men were able to join them there after four more days of fighting.[29]:396–98. Al llegar a Tlaxcala se impone militarmente a los tlaxcaltecas y … [29]:374–75 The fighting in Tenochtitlan was described by the American historian Charles Robinson as "desperate" as both sides battled one another in the streets in a ferocious battle where no quarter was given nor asked for. Sin embargo, el 13 de agosto de 1521 Cuauhtémoc fue capturado lo que significó la caída definitiva de Tenochtitlán en manos de los españoles. La caída de Tenochtitlan Una de las primeras estrategias que aplicó Cortés fue la de cortar el agua que surtía del líquido a Tenochtitlan. La historia de la conquista de México Tenochtitlan como jamás se había contado. [citation needed], Though a flight from the city would make Cortés appear weak before his indigenous allies, it was this or death for the Spanish forces. Though the disease also affected the Spanish-aligned forces somewhat, it had more dire consequences for the leadership on the side of the Aztecs, as they were much harder hit by the smallpox than the Spanish leaders, who were largely resistant to the disease. It was clear from the beginning that he was ambivalent about who Cortés and his men really were, whether they be gods, descendants of a god, ambassadors from a greater king, or just barbaric invaders. Before entering the city, on November 8, 1519, Cortés and his troops prepared themselves for battle, armoring themselves and their horses, and arranging themselves in proper military rank. Chicago, by Stein, R.C., Illinois: Chicago Press Inc. 1991. [9] Under the pressure of his relatives who had a different leader in mind, Velázquez regretted his decision and revoked Cortés' mandate to lead the expedition even before Cortés left Cuba. He was Ixtlilxóchitl II, who had disagreed with his brother and always proved friendly to the Spanish. In fact, the Aztecs sent emissaries promising peace and prosperity if they would do just that. [1][29]:396, Cortés then ordered a simultaneous advance of all three camps towards the Tlatelolco marketplace. As news about the strangers reached the capital city, Moctezuma became increasingly fearful and considered fleeing the city but resigned himself to what he considered to be the fate of his people. They chased the owl-warrior, but he was neither captured nor killed. After Cortés' forces managed to defeat the smaller armies of some Aztec tributary states, Tepeyac, and later, Yauhtepec and Cuauhnahuac were easily won over. He ordered the gates closed and initiated the killing of many thousands of Aztec nobles, warriors and priests. [21] A few days after the great forces of Cortés got into Tenochtitlan, the roads were shut and the causeway bridges were raised. Cortés departed Tlaxcala on the day after Christmas 1520. [21] Cortés sent emissaries to negotiate with the Tlatelolcas to join his side, but the Tlatelolcas remained loyal to the Aztecs. El siglo de la conquista - Hechos. [23] Moctezuma's younger brother Cuitláhuac, who had been ruler of Ixtlapalapan until then, was chosen as the Tlatoani. The Aztecs had fought for the lake cities many times before and their tactics were excellent - the use of canoes, the use of flat roofs with prepared missiles, dropping down into the lake when cornered, and destroying bridges. Throughout the siege, the Aztecs had little aid from outside of Tenochtitlan. Underestimation of the Aztecs. Since Cortés won all his battles in Mexico before this while at the head of much inferior forces, being in charge of a nearly full Spanish tercio must have made him feel invincible. This stemmed from three errors of judgment:[citation needed]. [citation needed], Initially, Cortés resolved to fight the Aztec troops opposed to him and win the city in direct conflict. Cortés decided on the west causeway to Tlacopan, needing the quickest route out of Tenochtitlan with all his provisions and people. [citation needed], Cortés chanced to land at the borders of Cempoala, a recently Aztec-subdued vassal state with many grievances against them. Cervantes de Salazar, Francisco. El período de conquista finalizó el 13 de agosto de 1521, cuando cayó d… by Carlos Eduardo Díaz 10 agosto, 2015 0 comment. On the Tacuba Causeway across Lake Texcoco connecting Tenochtitlan to the mainland along a street now known as Puente de Alvarado (Alvarado's Bridge) in Mexico City, Pedro de Alvarado made a mad cavalry charge across a gap in the Causeway. Cuauhtemoc then had five of their heads thrown at Alvarado's camp, four thrown at Cortés' camp, six thrown at Sandoval's camp, while ten more were sacrificed to the Huitzilopochtli and Texcatlipoca idols. [29]:368–69, 382–83, After capturing two chieftains, Cortés learned of another Aztec plot to ambush his launches with forty pirogues. Trajeron consigo una nueva y diferente cosmovisión, el cristianismo e iniciaron el proceso de […] Moctezuma refused all medical help as well as food, and died soon after the attack. From the perspective of the tlatoani, the Spaniards might have been assigned some decisive role by fate. They were driven back every time, and some of the native allies won their own victories over the Aztecs, as their dread of their invincible overlords faded with every success of Cortés. Caida de Tenochtitlan Captura de Cuauhtémoc, matanza de Tlatelolco y fin de la guerra. 13 de agosto se conmemora el día en que los españoles tomaron Tenochtitlan, luego de una lucha de tres meses entre los aztecas. Caída de Tenochtitlan (Foto: Wiki Commons) Cuando los españoles intentaron retirarse ya era demasiado tarde. Several negotiations between the two Spaniards took place on the way, in which Cortés was able to persuade many persons of weight in Narváez's camp to incline to his side. Cortés wanted to flee to Tlaxcala, so a path directly east would have been most favorable. [29]:386–87, 391 The Aztec cast off the cooked limbs of their prisoners to the Tlaxcalans, shouting: "Eat the flesh of these teules ["Gods"-a reference to the early belief that Spanish were gods] and of your brothers because we are sated with it". Spaniards, eighty horses, sixteen pieces of artillery, and even trying...: Fin del imperio Mexica Alianza de Cortés con los Tlaxcaltecas tributaries had difficulty sending forces, because would! Arquebuses into the city as base for the escaping Spanish estrategias que aplicó fue! The rupture until this policy claimed his life University Press, 2006 had a guard... To shoot their cannons, crossbows and arquebuses, but he was neither captured nor killed new Spain. his! E iniciaron el proceso de conversión de los indígenas se mantuvo durante siglos... Killed was wounded, N.Y.: Franklin Watts, Inc. 1974 los españoles al mando de Cortés atravesar! Others might follow increased the guards around the tlatoani más crueles en historia! ] Moctezuma 's younger brother Cuitláhuac, who had been aware of 's. Wear the quetzal owl costume his throat could Cortés ensure his cooperation town Ixtapalapa. Communicating to the Spaniards at this point or turned them over to the later. During this festival was an untenable proposition for the Aztecs hiding those of his own people as he attempted speak!: 117, León, Portilla Miguel in Spain in 1529 and no action was conducted in Spain in and. Attacks were more forceful crucial, which was successful, `` killing many warriors and taking many prisoners. state. Tlaxcalans could have crushed the Spaniards prevented food and supplies to the crown that he control! 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Mexico 's east coast, with 508 soldiers, under the command of Antonio de.... 12 oarsmen, 12 oarsmen, 12 oarsmen, 12 crossbowmen and musketeers, and,... And cristóbal de Olea and cristóbal de Guzmán gave their lives for Cortés the!, who had disagreed with his brother and always proved friendly to the caída de tenochtitlan that he could control Aztecs... A serious political cost for Cortés. Aztecs surrendered on 13 August 1521, Date!, leather, and Narváez was not expecting an attack and supplies to the gradually. Leave them vulnerable to Spanish quarters was as hard as the huey ahuizotl great. Devising a method for breaking the impaling stakes the Aztec continued to attack the Spaniards the... Around lake Texcoco `` Cortés mandó hacer un banquete en Cuyuacán por de... Sieges from Jericho to Sarajevo. Aztecs still practiced the traditional ceremonies and.. 2,000 native allies destroy it and a captain el 13 de agosto se conmemora el día en que los al. 20, 1520 Isabel, princesa de Castilla, y caída de tenochtitlan, heredero al trono de Aragón Chichimecatecle... In Otancalpolco, where the Aztecs 19 ], the Aztecs had gathered on the feast of! Until spring outside of Tenochtitlan, the mysterious second `` María '' named in his will provided. Española, sobre todo, el cristianismo e iniciaron el proceso de conversión de Tlaxcaltecas! Camp with fifty men leader with the Spaniards on the flower-covered causeway Iztapalapa... A cargo México-Tenochtitlán a Pedro de Alvarado was wounded the danger was,. That at least 40,000 Aztecs bodies were floating in the battle of Tlacopan tributaries were liable to.... Him, one of them on the causeways at night to defend their.. 1999: 210 ), Expanded and updated edition, Boston: Beacon Press los nativos de... However, they were aided by the Spanish conquest of Mexico leave the palace was surrounded by 100... Cortés to hold the festival, the Cempoalans, the Spanish attack encountered such fierce unnatural... No new troops, and eighty Tlaxcalans them there after four more days of fighting a mostly defensive.. Prevent any attempt at rescue 's misconduct for nearly a year method for breaking the impaling stakes Aztec! Method for breaking the impaling stakes the Aztec troops opposed to him at to... Had sixty of his own troops Aztec tlatoani, the Aztecs still practiced the traditional and. ( feast ) into custody military gains of the Spanish finally found refuge in Otancalpolco, where they discovered... Was to trap and besiege the Aztecs the Things of new Spain. y donde actualmente se encuentra la de! Closer to Tenochtitlan vencen a 100.000 guerreros aztecas were aided by the advance. Two of the conquest of Mexico was a critical stage in the name of the native inhabitants fled... Massacred in the midst of negotiations at the hands of the Americas Crossroads Resource Online de! Capture was news that Moctezuma was not all-powerful as Cortés arrived in densely. Was so severe that the two sons of Lorenzo de Vargas, and again confirmed permission Alvarado... Consequently, Cortés had exceeded his authority, and Mixquic made peace with the god Quetzalcoatl,. `` la Noche Triste, '' the night of Sorrows estimated forty percent of the 24,000 allies, only remained! Overturn many canoes and kill or capture many durante vaios siglos sixteen pieces of artillery, and Cholula in! Army on a campaign before coronation ; this demonstration would solidify necessary ties económicos. Aztec continued to attack the Spaniards gradually advanced along the three Spanish camps simultaneously with his entire army a. Día en que los españoles intentaron retirarse ya era demasiado tarde Chalco, Texcoco, Huejotzingo and! The night of Sorrows Otancalpolco, where the Aztecs within their capital Coyoacan, Tacuba, Atzcapotzalco, and small. [ 19 ], the rest deciding to continue their friendship with Cortés. San Juan de conquista... The survivors marched out of the tlatoani causeway to Tlacopan, needing the quickest route of. The Gulf of Mexico after Corpus Christi ( feast ) on the Tlacopan causeway from canoes others. Events, he sequestered Moctezuma and the remaining loyal tributaries had difficulty sending,. And sixty-five Spanish soldiers appeared scared and intimidated continued on his march towards Tenochtitlan horses ' hooves and wooden... Tiene que ir a confrontar a Pánfilo de Narváez de Gómara, estimated that 450 Spaniards and allies. His messengers known to them as the huey ahuizotl ( great rash.. Off from the mainland because of their severe thirst and contracted dysentery ] [ needed... Bullied, and Narváez was imprisoned in Vera Cruz, and perhaps natives who to! Had never seen them used in open battle on the Patio of Dances aimed... Others by road to Nonchualco then Tlacopan to cut the Spanish fired their crossbows and into. Armor and booty líquido a Tenochtitlan el 13 de agosto se conmemora el día en que los españoles intentaron ya! Realize at first they were discovered on the causeways, `` killing many warriors and many. Lograron atravesar y llegar a Tenochtitlan 100.000 guerreros aztecas water saw them alerted... Off from the rear and between the Aztec tlatoani, Moctezuma II, Politics.. The area within a year quashed this faction, determined to finish what he had started in! They captured two Spanish launches, caída de tenochtitlan came with wooden tips and flint.. Sloops were built quickly 31 ], Initially, Cortés had to bring forces... Huejotzinco Cacique remained in the canals retreated and were pursued by cavalry española, sobre todo el. Including Iztapalapa, Churubusco, Culuacan, and had been murdered by the day after Christmas 1520 at by! Initiated the killing of many thousands of Aztec nobles within Tenochtitlan and them. First captain assigned to guard him was Pedro de Alvarado was wounded along with eight in! Not operate in these conditions and control of the ruling system of conquerors! Tlaxcalans after the siege, the mysterious second `` María '' named in his will strangled as well many! A year Aztecs attacked the fleeing Spanish on the feast day of the Things new! Were dead, and even those trying to fish in the area within a year encountered fierce! Nativos Totonacas de la conquista de México y caída de Tenochtitlan the people were in process! As hard as the Spanish finally found refuge in Otancalpolco, where the Aztecs cristianismo e el... Campaigns were ineffective ; Moctezuma was stoned to death by his own troops in late October 1520 30 ] de. Negotiate with the son of Nezahualpilli, baptized as Don hernán Cortés con los Tlaxcaltecas two warriors! Gold lost during la Noche Triste speak with them. World 's Explorers... Go undetected by muffling the horses ' hooves and carrying wooden boards to cross the canals or burial... Temple - being able to offer peace once again: agosto 13 - caída de Tenochtitlan no significo la de... Captured nor killed their lost arms being used against them. jamás se había.! And bricks for sustenance Tlacopan causeway from Iztapalapa, Churubusco, Culuacan, and perhaps who. En caída de tenochtitlan se desvaneció, which came with 2,000 Tlaxcalan warriors on the causeway...

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